Online First

Online-first papers have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in this journal and posted online before final publication in a volume. The articles have been copy edited and author corrections have been incorporated before they are posted online. Typesetting and proofreading will commence with electronic publication, and the volume, issue and page numbers will then be assigned to the final version of the article. Online-first articles should be cited with the DOI link. 


RESEARCH


ROMANIAN WOMEN’S ACTIVISM IN CLUJ DURING THE INTERWAR YEARS

Ghizela COSMA orcid

pp. 5-27 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220221

In the post-1918 political context and in a city with a specific demographic landscape, women’s activism was shaped by ethnic and religious criteria, as well as by other specific objectives. Applying this typology to Romanian women’s societies, the study offers a view on some of the most prominent associations from Cluj, through a series of monographic notes that retain their most important defining elements: objectives, activity and ignificant accomplishments, also listing the individual particularities of each society. The short histories include microbiographies of the leadership – some of the most important representatives of the Cluj women’s movement. Going from description to analysis and by discerning the particular elements of each society, their leadership and also their discourse, the study emphasises the local particularities of interwar women’s activism; originating in the pre-war era, Romanian women’s interwar activism maintained the line of a national militancy, served through piety, charity and emancipation. This context left little interest for radical emancipation ideas; therefore, militancy for women’s rights centred on the objective of feminine emancipation as the ultimate purpose is not witnessed. Considered on a regional and national scale of female interwar activism, Romanian women’s activism from Cluj is part of a regional current of the feminist movement, with a traditionalist moderate tendency inside the larger Romanian feminist movement. The local Cluj branch of the Romanian Women’s Group (Gruparea Femeilor Române), who followed the model of their mother-society, promoted a distorted interpretation of women’s rights, in an anti-democratic authoritarian ideological construct marked by strong nationalist accents. On the other hand, after 1918, within new political and state realities, the activities of Cluj women established their objectives in tight connection to the main determining factors of the specific local realities of the era (demographic, economic, social, and cultural factors), and in the service of asserting and consolidating the newly found Romanian identity of the city.

FEMALE REPRESENTATIONS AND PRESENCES IN ROMANIAN FIRST WORLD WAR COMMEMORATIVE ART

Georgeta FODOR orcid

pp. 29-53 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220222

Art does not represent reality, but it can be an expression of it. Artists always used real-life experiences, including such events as revolutions, wars, etc. as a source for their works. At the same time, political and religious leaders used artistic, visual language for promoting their military victories or the supremacy of their power or faith. So, artworks, buildings, sculptures, or paintings were valuable tools for propaganda. Art can be used as a manifestation of political power or as a form of protesting against it. Sometimes artists were asked to represent abstract values like liberty, victory, peace, or the nation. In such circumstances, artists used the feminine form and not only because the notions were feminine nouns. Considering these general premises, my study explores the female representations and presences in Romanian First World War commemorative art. The study examines how the feminine form was used in the First World War monuments. The personification of abstract notions was examined, together with the presence of real feminine figures in this type of art, and Romanian women’s involvement in creating and sponsoring these kinds of monuments. In addition, the study intends to assess the impact and the extent to which people in general, and women in particular, resonated with these monumental works of art. The main sources for this approach were the public monuments built during the interwar period as part of the commemoration practices of the war. Given the context, reference is also made to other works of art having female representations, created by the same artists who created the monuments under review.

THREE WOMEN ON THREE FRONTS: THE FEMININE EXPERIENCE OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR AS REFLECTED IN WAR JOURNALS AND LETTERS

Eliza DEAC orcid

pp. 55-72 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220223

The aim of this article is to provide a close reading of two illustrative texts for the feminine version of the war diary during WWI in the Romanian territory, namely Yvonne Blondel’s War Journal: 1916-1917 and Queen Marie’s unabridged version of the diary she kept between 1916 and 1918. The contrastive element is represented by Sextil Pușcariu’s Memoirs, which are relevant from a threefold perspective: gender, geography, and the representation of the feminine figure. The article will focus on six feminine roles: the nurse, the patriot, the diplomat, the wife, the mother, and the writer.

RESEARCH TOPICS IN FEMINIST AND GENDER GEOGRAPHY FROM 1975 TO 2021. A BRIEF ASSESSMENT OF ROMANIA’S STATUS

Elena-Manuela BÎRSĂNUC orcid

pp. 5-26 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120221

Feminist and Gender Geography witness a tremendous development since 1975 until 2021, both through the diversification of research topics and international spatial expansion. This paper aims to review and analyse this development worldwide, aiming to provide a new perspective on the matter. A set of 8,376 Web of Science published research is investigated and 32 main topics of study are derived, as well as a spatial extension breakdown. Further analysis highlights three main stages of development of the field based on the emergence of new topics of study: the substantiation stage (1975-1989), the diversification stage (1990-2009) and the ‘boom’ stage (2009-2021). A distinct section is reserved for reviewing Romania’s status, a former communist country, currently lacking substantial feminist geographical research; this section provides a brief assessment of the existing Romanian literature, as well as of the scientific and historical background for the current status. Part of the authors’ PhD thesis, this paper hopes to hearten fellow geographers to approach their research through the lens of feminist philosophy and gender paradigm.

DESIGN FOR TERRITORIES AND GREEN ECONOMY: IN SEARCH OF A STRATEGY FOR LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

Samara FERREIRA CRISPIM orcid, Luca CETARAorcid

pp. 27-36 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120222

We live in a fast-paced world where it is necessary to rethink lifestyles and develop new strategies to create a green future. Given this scenario, this study presents an introductory discussion that aims to link design thinking, behavioural science and green economy and identify potential synergies to promote sustainable growth and territorial resilience through the development of a ‘new framework for design for territories’. While design for territories consists of outlining strategic approaches to the design of products, services, and systems to strengthen local communities and enhance territories, the ‘new framework for design for territories’ faces the challenge of taking on a new transdisciplinary strategic role. Because of its ability to mediate between actors, techniques, and technologies, the ‘new framework for design for territories’ was developed based on a literature review from the fields of design thinking, behavioural science, green economy, and design for territories. The findings suggest a remarkable way of thinking that can be successfully applied to policy design, especially for innovative, soft, noncommand or classical economic policies. Finally, we emphasise the possibilities of applying design for territories as an innovation catalyst for sustainable territorial value chains, products, and services with well-defined territorial identities.

THE SHORT HAPPY LIFE OF A GEOGRAPHY OF THE COMMONS. JAZZ AND THE INVENTION OF AFRICA

Horea POENAR orcid

pp. 37-54 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120223

This research focuses on a key epoch in which an essential articulation between history, geography, politics and music allowed for a short time a radical opening of invention and emancipation. The 1960s not only deconstructed the conservative ideologies of the previous decades, but through such a subtraction made possible a different discourse about universalism and about the commons. My investigation connects political events (like the independence of some African states or the fight for racial and social justice) to musical events (like free jazz) in order to advance the hypothesis not only of a potential history (a concept already defined by Ariella Azoulay in 2019), but also of a potential geography. Such a geography represented an opening that allowed the imagination of an authentic existence of the commons, a dimension that seems now to have been lost, but that would be and is worth re-enacting.

LANDSCAPE DYNAMICS IN THE SOMEȘ CORRIDOR. CASE STUDY: GURUSLĂU DEPRESSION (ROMANIA)

Andreea COSTEAorcid, Viorel GLIGORorcid, Ioan-Aurel IRIMUȘ orcid

pp. 37-54 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120224

Changes in land use patterns induced by different agricultural practices are reflected territorially through transformations at the level of elementary landscape units, with an impact on territorial identity and cohesion. The aim of this study is to highlight the dynamics of the territorial structures in the post-communist period (1990-2018), diachronically reflected in the transformations of the landscape of the Guruslău Depression, using the landscape metrics. The main direction of the scientific research was based on the analysis of land use changes and the identification of the spatial elements of structural-landscape distinction with impact on land degradation process. The evaluation of the landscape dynamics in the current context uses several effective metrics and tools, which increasingly require the identification of interdisciplinary methods of analysis, with a decisive impact on territorial development. Besides, the present approach is also motivated by the increasing environmental impact of climate change. The methodology used in the present paper is based both on the geoprocessing of vector data using GIS tools and correlated spatial analysis, and on the identification of landscape types using a new process of reclassifying land use categories, according to a set of landscape definition variables. The results of the research highlighted both the particularities of landscape transformations that occurred in the reference interval, as well as the favourable conditions for addressing biocultural diversity, by identifying traditional agricultural practices and the resilience of geographical landscapes given the adaptation to changing development strategies. Meanwhile, by detecting the landscape structures affected by change, in correlation with the impact induced on the biodiversity of the territory, the present study has a wide applicability in the most appropriate implementation of local development policies, as well as in identifying the forms of sustainable valorisation of the landscape in the study area.

ROA CLUJ: REKO TYPE SUSTAINABLE MARKETING NETWORK IN ROMANIA

Kinga Xénia HAVADI-NAGY orcid

pp. 5-24 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220211

The trend of sustainable consumption induces a change in the marketing strategies, applying a marketing type that promotes the culture of quality, and employs the principles of eco-rationality in choosing the tools of interaction with the consumers. The originally Finnish REKO (abbreviation of the Swedish “Rejäl Konsumtion”, meaning “Fair Consumption”) model of alternative food network (AFN) is a perfect example of implementing the principles of sustainable marketing. This survey focuses on ROA (Roade Online din Ardeal; Fruits/Harvest from Transylvania online), a REKO type direct marketing network, based in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The aim of the study is to assess the chances and challenges of this type of AFN in the Romanian context. For this, we analyse the opportunities and impediments of development, and the cost and benefits of the AFN for the involved producers. The objective of the survey is to reveal the potential contribution of AFNs to sustainable production, marketing, and distribution of local products. The applied qualitative research is based on (1) an interview with a coordinator of the investigated initiative, (2) a survey among the involved producers, (3) participant observation as consumer, (4) informal discussions with the AFN stakeholders, and (5) secondary data analysis. As conclusions, we can state that Romania holds significant resources for the implementation of AFNs due to numerous favourable circumstances, such as the rising demand for qualitative local and regional products, and the willingness of consumers and producers to get involved in direct marketing networks. However, grassroot initiatives of direct marketing face administrative and legal challenges. The lack of real support of public policies, the weakly developed idea of self-government, and not firmly established in practice, confine the short food supply chains to a niche phenomenon.

SUSTAINABILITY, RESILIENCE AND WELLBEING CONVERGENCES FOR PLACE-BASED APPROACHES

Alexandru BĂNICĂ orcid, Ionel MUNTELE orcid, Marinela ISTRATE orcid

pp. 25-46 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220212

The present article is a conceptual and bibliometric radiography of ‘the new trinity of governance’ (Joseph & McGregor, 2020) that includes sustainability, resilience, and wellbeing from the viewpoint of territorial approaches. First, the paper makes theoretical considerations of the three concepts by analysing their definition and characteristics. Second, the study proposes a bibliometric analysis of the three well-established concepts, taking into account the papers that include the relations between all three in a single framework. Third, we developed a content analysis considering only the most relevant papers in the proposed study area as we try to highlight the main theoretical and empirical implications of overlapping sustainability, resilience, and wellbeing from the viewpoint of place-based strategies and planning as reflected by current scientific research. The results show the prevalence of four major directions of research which include the three concepts as pillars for the theoretical and empirical approaches: 1) nature-centred assessments, 2) safe and sustainable human activities and critical services, 3) participative governance for planning human settlements, 4) individuals’ and communities’ culture and identities. Finally, the missing link that can transform all these convergent, but still diverse, perspectives is identified as being the capabilities theory of Amartya Sen. To accomplish this role, the classic theory was reinterpreted in a broader sustainability-related approach that takes into consideration the equity and wellbeing of individuals and communities, but also the equilibrium between nature and human development. Conclusively, if managed wisely, the new integrative approach could mark a paradigm shift that might push forward new ways of planning and governing sustainable, safe and liveable territories.

DISCIPLINARY CHALLENGES IN FOLKLORE STUDIES IN ROMANIAAFTER 1945. TWO CASE STUDIES FROM THE CLUJ FOLKLORE  ARCHIVE (ARHIVA DE FOLCLOR DIN CLUJ)

Alina BRANDA orcid

pp. 47-62 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220213

The main goal of this paper is to adequately understand the shifts produced after 1945 in Folklore Studies (Ethnology) in terms of research topics, methodologies, approaches, and scientific policies, in connection with the new political and ideological context. In particular it aims at discussing how, why and to what extent the Cluj Folklore Archive could be defined as a cultural institution playing an important role at the regional level whilst contributing to a correct socio-cultural understanding of Transylvania in relation to the other Romanian provinces. Content analysis will be the main methodology used, whereas the intricate connections and relationships among archives, memory, and territorial and cultural identities shown in the sources will support the process of understanding, deepening, and widening the researched topic.

THE EVOLUTION OF CETĂŢUIA URBAN ENSEMBLE IN CLUJ-NAPOCA BY USING POSTCARDS: FROM FORTIFICATION TO RECREATIONAL SPACE

Florentina-Cristina MERCIU orcid, Ana-Maria VASILOIU orcid

pp. 63-95 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220214

Visual representations are a key tool for tourism marketing, incorporating the possibility of transmitting the associated historical and cultural symbols, as well as the messages associated with the official discourse at the same time. This article aims to analyse the evolution of urban and tourist planning since 1900 until now, in the area of Cetăţuia urban ensemble in Cluj-Napoca, by using postcards. The methodology consisted of interpreting the visual representations of the studied area from a critical perspective of the official discourse based on the selection of postcards published in different historical periods. The results of the study highlight the changes registered by Cetăţuia urban ensemble based on the evolution of the tourist planning, on the one hand, as well as on the narrative associated with the visual representations strongly influenced by the political ideology, on the other hand. This study reflects the role of postcards as a research tool in studies focused on analysing the visual representations of cultural heritage elements as promotion tools, but also a means of understanding cultural buildings and sites. At the same time, the visual representations of Cetăţuia and its location encompass coded messages of the official discourse meant to promote their image as a recreational space as part of the modernisation process of Cluj-Napoca during Socialism.

THE ROLE OF LANDFORMS IN THE LOCATION OF ROMAN FORTIFICATIONS IN NORTHERN TRANSYLVANIA (TIHĂU-CĂȘEIU AREA) AND THE PRODUCTION OF PLACE AND REGIONAL IDENTITY

Alexandra-Maria COLCER orcid, Ioan-Aurel IRIMUȘ

pp. 5-20  | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120211

By combining the technical and empirical research methods, this article aims at establishing the role of the landforms in the location of Roman settlements and fortifications in Northern Transylvania, Romania, focusing on the Dacia Porolissensis (province of the Roman Empire) border and how (and if) these elements are still present in the local identity. Cartographic methods helped us to achieve the technical part. We used the ArcMap 10.6 software. The result obtained through digital modelling is the morphometric identification of the territorial discontinuities. Considering the qualitative aspects, the used methods were the traditional ones: analysis, synthesis, induction, and deduction. These methods enabled us to better understand how these settlements influenced the regional identity. The results of the study are emphasizing the strategical importance of the landforms in establishing the Roman castrum, and it demonstrates how (or if) the associated settlements remained present in the locals’ mentality and influenced the regional identity.

POLITICAL BOUNDARIES AND TERRITORIAL IDENTITY IN EARLY MODERN CENTRAL EUROPE: THE WESTERN FRONTIER OF TRANSYLVANIA DURING THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY

Florin Nicolae ARDELEAN orcid

pp. 21-38 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120212

The last decades have witnessed an increased interest in the research of territorial delimitations in late medieval and early modern Europe. A significant part of the academic debate has been focused on identifying and defining the process of transition from medieval frontiers, perceived as vague areas of contact, to modern linear borders. The aim of this article is to analyse the organisation of the western confines of the Transylvanian Principality during the decades in which this state was formed, from the Ottoman conquest of Buda (1541) until the ratification of the Speyer Peace Treaty (1571). Throughout this period, the territorial delimitation of Transylvania from the Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Hungary was an ongoing process, marked by both military confrontations and diplomatic negotiations. Through a critical reassessment of the most relevant Romanian and Hungarian literature on this complex subject and the analysis of new data from official and narrative contemporary sources, I have tried to identify which were the most important political and military events that shaped the western borderlands of Transylvania. A fundamental objective of my research is to provide an accurate definition for the western region of the Transylvanian Principality, contributing thus to the general debate on the nature of frontiers/borders in sixteenth century Europe.


LOCAL IDENTITY TRANSFORMATIONS REFLECTED THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF MERCHEAȘA / MIRKVÁSÁR / STREITFORT, TRANSYLVANIA, ROMANIA

Zoltan MAROŞI orcid

pp. 39-64 | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120213

In the last three decades the Transylvanian villages faced a slow, but constant decline in many aspects. One of the many villages in this situation is Mercheașa (known as Mirkvásár in Hungarian, or Streitfort in German), part of Homorod (Hamruden) Commune, Brașov County, Transylvania. The aging and numerically reduced population of the village, occupied exclusively in agriculture, in parallel with an inefficient local administration, induced the impoverishment of a once flourishing and prosperous village. This long decay is now clearly reflected by the degradation of the buildings, abandoned historical built heritage, desolate landscape, lack of consensus or a minimum order that would reflect any kind of management. Based on an extensive field research and cooperation with a local non-governmental organisation dedicated to sustainability, culture and education, this paper shows how the actions initiated from outside the community have managed to change the mentality of the inhabitants, who are now more open to culture, improvements and even variety. Following a mixed, interdisciplinary methodology, involving both local history and social investigation methods, approached from a geographical perspective, this article answers several questions, including the most important: How did the locals react to these projects? and Does sustainable development depend primarily on community involvement and consensus? The results show an assessment of the current situation, an analysis of the elements that can become a local brand, and the initiated projects by the organisation, the results, and their impact on the villagers’ attitudes towards development. This paper also includes an extensive evaluation of the local landmark, the fortified church, including a bird’s eye (perspective) drawing of the site.

 

BOOK REVIEWS


 

ROMANIAN PASSENGERS LOOKING OUT OF THE TRAIN WINDOW. AN ATTEMPT OF CULTURAL HISTORY (1830-1930). REVIEW

Călători români privind pe fereastra trenului. O încercare de istorie culturală (18301930) / Radu MÂRZA

Reviewed by Claudia Septimia SABĂUorcid

pp. – | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220216


 

GLOBALIZATION, MARGINALIZATION AND CONFLICT. A REVIEW

Globalization, Marginalization and Conflict. Political, Economic and Social Processes/Borna FUERST-BJELIŠ & Walter LEIMGRUBER (Editors)

Reviewed by Alina BRANDAorcid

pp. – | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120216


 

INVENTING BERLIN. CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND NATION-BUILDING

Inventing Berlin. Architecture, Politics and Cultural Memory in the New/Old German Capital Post-1989/ Mary DELLENBAUGH-LOSSE

Reviewed by Oana-Ramona ILOVAN

pp. – | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120217


 

REPRESENTING PLACE AND TERRITORIAL IDENTITIES IN EUROPE. A REVIEW

Representing Place and Territorial Identities in Europe. Discourses, Images and Practices/ Tiziana BANINI & Oana-Ramona ILOVAN

Reviewed by Paul MUTICĂ

pp. – | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220217


 

THE HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CROATIA. TERRITORIAL CHANGE AND CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. A REVIEW

The Historical Geography of Croatia. Territorial Change and Cultural Landscapes/ Borna FUERST-BJELIŠ & Nikola GLAMUZINA

Reviewed by Radu MÂRZA

pp. – | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID120226


 

ALEXANDRINA CANTACUZINO AND THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT OF THE INTERWAR YEARS. A REVIEW

Alexandrina Cantacuzino și mișcarea feministă din anii interbelici [Alexandrina Cantacuzino and the Feminist Movement of the Interwar Years],
edition of documents elaborated by Anemari Monica NEGRU

Reviewed by Cecilia CÂRJA

pp. – | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220226


 

AMBIGUOUS TRANSITIONS: GENDER, THE STATE, AND EVERYDAY LIFE IN SOCIALIST AND POSTSOCIALIST ROMANIA – A REVIEW

Ambiguous Transitions: Gender, the State, and Everyday Life in Socialist and Postsocialist Romania/ Jill MASSINO

Reviewed by Ionela BOGDAN

pp. – | Full text (PDF) | DOI: 10.23740/TID220227