Deltiology, the study and collection of postcards, is a relatively new term, introduced in the dictionaries only in the middle of the 20th century. However, studying and collecting postcards is a much older concern and it is directly linked to the history of photography from the first half of the 19th century. The introduction of postcards in Romania and, especially in Transylvania, was achieved mainly through Western influences, proved by the greater number of available relevant postcards with reference to Transylvania than to the other historical extra-Carpathian provinces. Based on a modest but very relevant collection of postcards, this research aims to enrich the knowledge about the little-known town Rupea and especially to encourage the urban history research using unconventional sources of information, methodologies and methods. In this case the collection of postcards will be analysed, sorted and ordered chronologically after the most accurate dating possible, so as to display the distinct stages in the evolution of Rupea town’s central square from an animated market in the past to a quiet and picturesque park at present. Thus, this evolution also implies a functional reconversion of the town’s central square whose phases are immortalized by illustrations starting with 1851 until 2018. During this time, the town of Rupea was part of three different national administrations, until 1867 it was part of the Habsburg Empire, between 1867-1918 it was under the administration of the Hungarian Kingdom which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and since 1918, or after the Treaty of Trianon, it became part of Romania (which was a monarchy, a socialist republic, and since 1991 a democratic republic). Therefore, the analysed period has not only a strong historical significance for the Transylvanian settlements but also includes the entire evolution and formation of the current cultural landscapes. In order to achieve the purpose of this article, the illustrated postcards will be redrawn, identified, described and interpreted in accordance with the territorial planning procedures, contributing to the consolidation of the history and local identity, as part of a long-term and sustainable development. Accordion Sample Description
The territorial dimension of the European convergence policy is represented by polycentricity. The main challenge in promoting a polycentric and balanced territorial development is represented by an accurate delineation of the functional urban areas. Effective development strategies require the extension of functional areas to be scientifically defined as a critical mass. According to several studies, Functional Urban / Metropolitan Areas can be determined based on the number of commuters going to the core city, in different shares of the total economically active population. The evaluation of the polycentric development of the network of settlements in Romania is hampered by the lack of reliable data on the number of commuters at the settlement level. The indicator is not statistically monitored and consequently misses from the list of indicators quantified by the National Institute of Statistics. Therefore, the present study has as main purpose to identify the Functional Urban Areas in Romania for cities with more than 30,000 inhabitants. The methodology is based on the statistical support of ArcGIS 10.3 and on analyses based on indicators such as population and number of employees (absolute values and dynamics) at the level of settlements (LAU 2). The results of the study consist of mapping the functional urban areas of the large Romanian cities, which allows an assessment of the legally constituted metropolitan areas of Romania.
The recent debate on landscape planning in Europe has seen growing interest in knowledge co-production processes. The need to apply the European Landscape Convention and political pressures to pool the knowledge of citizens and non-experts has been at the fore in the last few regional landscape planning experiences in Italy. Using a qualitative approach and specific analysis criteria, the research examines the case of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Regional Landscape Plan (PPR FVG), exploring the relational geographies and the power relations embedded in the knowledge co-production processes related to the Plan. This research provides a comprehensive map of the top-down and bottom-up relations linking the actors producing knowledge on the regional landscape and an in-depth analysis on power equilibria for the key nodes structuring the landscape Plan. The study questions the knowledge co-production mechanisms included in a regional planning experience and stresses the importance of the exercise of co-production experiences in fostering the diffusion of “landscape democracy” at the micro-scale. Eventually, this research shows the complexity of relational dynamics, with links which are often unequal, but generally aimed at joint production of knowledge in relation to regional landscapes.
Agri-environmental payments are a key element of the environmental efforts in the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy. Being a voluntary scheme, they can however only be effective if enough farmers choose to participate. While the factors influencing farmers’ decision (not) to participate in agri-environment schemes have been widely studied in the Old Member States, almost no research exists regarding agri-environment scheme uptake in the New Member States. This paper therefore determines which factors motivate farmers in Târnava Mare Region, Romania, to participate in agri-environment schemes, which factors impede the decision to participate, and which lead farmers to quit participation. To do so, the results of 13 case studies of participants, drop-outs, and non-participants are analysed and backed with findings from expert interviews. Results are then compared to findings from Western Europe, revealing significant differences between the decision-making of farmers in Târnava Mare Region and those examined by previous research. Thus, this paper demonstrates that findings from Old Member States regarding agri-environment scheme uptake cannot simply be assumed to hold for New Member States, a fact that should be considered in EU policy making. This highlights the importance of conducting research in Eastern European countries for schemes to reach their full potential across Europe.
Identity and territory are concepts intimately connected to Regional Geographies. Over the last decades, however, Regional Geographies experienced a certain erosion both within the academic discipline of Geography and school Geography. While Geography traditionally deals with identities from a spatial perspective, there is little information on how school Geography deals under shifting frameworks with both identities and territories. This paper takes a closer look at the state of Regional Geographies against the background of identity and territory in three contexts. Germany stands for a school Geography anchored in a thematic-regional tradition, where national identity plays a secondary role. Also, it represents federal and decentral educational systems. Romania stands not only in an exemplary manner for post-socialist countries. It also exemplifies countries with a school Geography deeply rooted in a regional tradition. Finally, Mexico represents the post-colonial status, with a strong national identity tied to the national Geography. This exploratory study underlines the erosion of Regional Geography in three school Geographies. Also, territory and identity experience other reconfigurations within Geography education based on key concepts and conceptualized against the background of system theory.